Battle plan

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A Battle Plan is an important tool that helps players visualize how their divisions will advance, allows the AI to control the player's divisions automatically, and can confer a Planning bonus. Plans do not have to be drawn in order to give divisions orders, but are generally recommended as they reduce micromanagement and improve the flow of gameplay.

If desired, different divisions within a single army may be allocated to different battle plans. In this case, players will usually have to manually assign divisions to each front, or they will default to the first front drawn.

An example of a battle plan would be a major invasion of Italy, north of enemy lines, designed to crush an enemy preoccupied with an engagement from the south. The player can set up, and separately activate one or more amphibious landings, paradrops, and attacks by ground forces already facing the enemy, each at the time they think best. Some of these plan orders might be set up to be implemented (by the player at the same time, while others may be set up to occur in sequence, in each case activated by the player as needed by shift-clicking only on that specific order to activate it, and with the ability to change that element of the plan or the troops assigned to it before or after activation. This allows different parts of an army to perform separate tasks for the player within an overall strategy, much as army corps performed different missions for WW2 armies. Use of such complex plans is optional, but occasionally very useful when a player has to launch multiple different operations at the same time or by stages.

To make a battle plan for offensive land operations, the player must first define a Front Line – this is the point from which the army group will begin operations. Select the Front Line button or press Z, then click on or draw a line on the map along a national border or the current line between opposing forces to indicate where the army's currently selected divisions will assemble. Then click the Offensive Line button (a line with an arrow) or press X and draw the front to which the armies should advance from the current Front Line.

Drawing battle plans[edit | edit source]

The battle plan tools can be accessed via the battle plan toolbar that opens when an army (a general) or an army group (a field marshal) is selected.


For the buttons

  • Exercise.png Exercise
  • Divisions assignment mode button.png Divisions assignment mode
  • Unassign divisions button.png Unassign divisions
  • Edit mode button.png Edit mode
  • Delete order button.png Delete order

see the article Hotkeys#Battleplan_hotkeys.

With the button

  • Execute battle plans carefully.png Execute battle plans carefully

the player can select if the battle plan is executed Execute battle plans carefully.pngcarefully, in Execute battle plans balanced.pnga balanced manner or Execute battle plans agressively.pngaggressively.

The use of the buttons

is described in the following sections.

Naval invasion[edit | edit source]

A naval invasion order from Dunkerque to Dover and the adjacent provinces.

Naval invasion button.png A naval invasion is an amphibious attack on enemy territory. It is a very powerful tool to open up new fronts against an enemy where they least expect them.

When selecting a naval invasion order, the player will be asked to left-click on a province with a naval base as a point of departure and right-click on the enemy province(s) to invade. The army will automatically gather at the naval base they will depart from for the assault.

Naval invasions may be launched from any friendly port that the player has access to. This means that an invasion of enemy territory can be launched from the port of an ally that is not at war with the enemy.

Capacity[edit | edit source]

The total number of divisions assigned to naval invasions of a country is limited by its Naval Invasion Capacity.png Naval Invasion Capacity. The capacity is primarily determined by the naval technologies of the 'transports' branch, it can also be increased +10 by selecting Tip of The Spear as Spirit of the Army in the Officer corps (requires no step back and using Grand Battleplan). The base value is zero, which means that the technology “Transport Ship” must be researched before divisions may be assigned to a naval invasion.

Year Naval Invasion Capacity.png Technology
1922 +10 Transport ShipTransport Ship
1940 +40 Landing CraftLanding Craft
1944 +100 Advanced Landing CraftAdvanced Landing Craft

The naval invasion order that has more divisions assigned than the Naval Invasion Capacity limits will not take place. The arrow on the map appears but with the text “No divisions 0 Transports”. The assigned divisions keep their ! red exclamation mark which indicates that they have no orders.

A country's invasion capacity is measured in division number, not in their total weight or combat width. Wider and more powerful division templates allow players to execute stronger invasions.

Preparation time[edit | edit source]

Naval invasions require time to prepare before they may be executed. The exact time it will take is dependent on technology and the amount of divisions to be shipped over. With the first level of naval invasion technology, a 1-division invasion will take 7 days and 10-division invasion will take 70 days of planning. Landing Craft technology (1940) halves time required.

The planning will proceed immediately, even while the divisions are still on their way to the departure port.

It is possible to prepare several invasions from different ports in parallel, even to the same target province(s), saving on total preparation time. It is also possible to prepare several invasions to different target provinces from the same port.

Note that the naval invasion capacity is shared among all player's naval invasions and is not per single naval invasion.

Convoys[edit | edit source]

In order to ship units over to foreign lands, sufficient convoys are required to do so. The amount of convoys an individual division requires is dependent on its weight; the weight is equivalent with the amount of convoys required to ship over one division. The amount of convoys required is rounded up. Technology may decrease the amount of convoys required for an invasion.

Weight 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.75 0.8 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75
  • Support companies
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  • Superheavy Tank Destroyer

Naval intel efficiency[edit | edit source]

Seazone property window showing 80.20% naval intel efficiency when you hover over the naval supremacy bar.

Naval supremacy gets reduced if naval intelligence efficiency is low. At 10% intel or less, supremacy gets reduced to 50%. The penalty linearly improves and disappears at 40% intel.

The actual value of naval intel efficiency of a seazone can be seen in the seazone property window, that you get when you click a seazone. You have to hover with the mouse over the naval supremacy bar. Alternatively you can see it, when you hover with your mouse over a seazone in the strategic navy map mode (accessible with the F2 button).

The naval intel efficiency of a seazone is calculated from the intel you have from nations you are at war with and that have ships in that seazone. If you are not at war, you have 100% naval intel efficiency everywhere. If you are at war with one country, you have 100% naval intel efficiency in all seazones in which this country has no ships assigned (the value Enemy supremacy is 0). In the seazones in which the country has ships assigned (Enemy supremacy > 0), the naval intel efficiency is the intel you have of that country. If you are at war with more countries, and more than one of these countries have ships in one seazone, the naval intel efficiency, is weighted towards the country that has more naval supremacy in that seazone.

La Résistance La Résistance intel ledger navy tab showing details about the Royal Navy.

With the DLC La Résistance La Résistance, the intel you have of a country, can be seen in the intel ledger of that country. When you hover with the mouse over the naval section of the intel ledger, you see how the navy intel is calculated.

There are several factors that contribute to naval intel efficiency. The naval intel efficiency against a specific enemy country, expressed as a percentage between 0 and 100, is the sum of each of the following factors:

Common factors on naval intel efficiency: (With and without La Résistance)

  • Enemy Ideology (Democratic: 20%, Non aligned: 20%, Communist: 12.5%, Fascist: 10%)
  • Enemy Trade law (Free trade: 20%, Export focus: 10%, Limited exports: 5%, Closed economy: 0%)
  • Radar coverage (Radars that cover any seazone with enemy ships on missions, can provide up to 20% naval intel efficiency. Naval intel gathered per radar is only one value per country, not per seazone. Naval intel about the UK gathered per radar that covers the english channel can provide naval intel efficiency for a naval invasion in the Mediterranean Sea.)
  • Fighting the enemy navy (Naval intel gained from naval battles decays by around -0.2%/week.)

Factors on naval intel efficiency only with the DLC La Résistance La Résistance:

The Naval Department upgrade to Intelligence agency boosts the naval intel efficiency by +25% of its total value, i.e. it is multiplied by 1.25.

Factors on naval intel efficiency only without the DLC La Résistance:

Own Decryption level
0 1 2


Enemy Encryption level 0 0% 30% 45% 60%
1 0% 15% 22.5% 30%
2 0% 10% 15% 20%
3 0% 7.5% 11.25% 15%

Example with the DLC La Résistance La Résistance:

As illustrated by the picture opposite: Democratic ideology (20%), Export Focus trade law (10%), Radar coverage (16.9%) and Spy network (5.5%) adding up to 52.4%, then multiplied by 1.25 from the Naval Department, give the total naval intel efficiency of 65.5% against this particular instance of UK.

Example without the DLC La Résistance:

If you don't use the DLC La Résistance and want to naval invade a fascist country (10%) that has closed economy (0%) and has researched Encryption level 3 and you have Decryption Level 3 (15%) and have no radars that cover any enemy territory: You get a naval intel efficiency of 25%, reducing your naval supremacy to 75% of the normal value.

Naval supremacy[edit | edit source]

To execute a naval invasion, a country requires more than 50% naval supremacy (also called 'naval superiority' in some tooltips) in all strategic regions (sea zones) in which the divisions will need to traverse the sea en-route to their destination. These are the regions the arrow of the naval invasion battle plan passes through.

To be able to get naval supremacy, you have to have at least 40% naval intel efficiency.

Naval supremacy of a navy depends on what type of mission it is running, how effective it is on the region, how many ships it has and how large they are. Naval supremacy in a strategic region (sea zone) is the sum of naval supremacy of the taskforces assigned to it.

Naval supremacy by naval missions: [1]

Mission Naval supremacy
Patrol.png Patrol 100%
Strike Force.png Strike Force 100%
Naval Invasion Support.png Naval Invasion Support 100%
Convoy Raiding.png Convoy Raiding 50%
Convoy Escort.png Convoy Escort 50%
Minelaying.png Minelaying 30%
Naval Minesweeping.png Minesweeping 30%
Naval Exercises.png Naval Exercises 0%
Hold Mission.png Hold (in and out of port) 0%

Larger ships contribute more to naval supremacy. For example the italian early battleship RN Andrea Doria provides 356 naval supremacy on strike force mission. A single Curatone Class italian early destroyer provides 117 naval supremacy on strike force mission. Naval supremacy per ship is calculated as:

Naval supremacy of ship = 100.0 + 0.005 * ship production cost in industrial capacity (IC) + 0.05 * ship manpower

Task forces with Do Not Engage order do not contribute to naval supremacy.

Air superiority and Minelaying provide a bonus for naval supremacy. Maximum possible bonus from air superiority is +100% to the ship amount, making each ship count for two. It is achieved when air superiority is 100% and there are enough planes to cover 100% of the sea region.

Naval supremacy is only required for a short moment to launch the prepared invasion. After that the invasion will proceed even without sufficient supremacy. Once the naval invasion has been properly planned, naval supremacy and naval intel efficiency has been attained, and sufficient convoys are gathered, the plan may be activated.

Invasion in transit[edit | edit source]

Invading divisions travel through the sea province by province on convoys, and can be intercepted by enemy fleets and bombers just like supply and trade convoys. It is recommended to use escorts for the convoys, lest the enemy rally their entire fleet to intercept the invading fleet.

When invaders reach the shores and begin to disembark, the side being invaded gets a notification with an icon and a sound and has a brief moment to rally any defenders.

Invasion speed is improved by technology, and is greatly delayed by attacks on the convoys.

Invasion combat[edit | edit source]

The division icon tooltip of a division during a naval invasion, showing the landing progress.
The division icon tooltip of a division during a naval invasion shows the landing progress. In this case, with 1940 Landing Craft technology and 16.4% landing progress, Total attack ability is: -80% + 80% * 16.4% = -66.9% and Total defend ability is: (+50% + 15%) - 65% * 16.4% = +54.4%.

If the invasion meets resistance, similar to attacking over a naval strait, the landing troops receive a default 70.7%[2] penalty to attack and breakthrough in the ensuing combat (see Terrain#Terrain_features). The Amphibious adjuster of the division can modify this penalty. Heavy equipment generally makes it worse, while marines, engineers, Man the Guns amphibious vehicles, and No Step Back flame tanks perform better (see Terrain#Unit-specific_adjusters).

Consider using Shore bombardment to support the invasion, as well as any close air support in range.

Additionally, divisions have increased breakthrough (+50%[3]) but reduced attack (-80%[4]) while being protected by their transports. These effects fade away[5] as the landing progresses and the troops leave their landing crafts, measured by movement progress (usually after 48 hours[6]).

The Invasion Defense modifier primarily provided by later landing craft technologies has two separate effects:

  • it is additive with the +50% starting breakthrough bonus, but fades away as well
  • it multiplicatively improves the landing penalty like this: [7]

Post invasion[edit | edit source]

Unless invading divisions have captured a port or a city, they might be cut off from supply, and need to achieve these objectives within 72 hours before supplies run out.

Paradrop[edit | edit source]

A paradrop order from an airfield in Germany to the Netherlands.

Paratroop button.png A paradrop is an attack by air on enemy territory. A paradrop may only be executed by paratroopers and their support equipment. Divisions with any battalions that cannot be dropped may not be used in a paradrop. Most kinds of line battalions will make a division ineligible for air drops if they are present in the division; see the division designer display on whether the division is para-capable.

A paradrop must start from an airfield with transport planes without a mission assigned. Double check that the transport planes do not have an assigned mission, as well as no assigned air strategic zone. Make sure that the number of transport planes is equal to or greater than the weight of the paratroopers. You must have at least 70% control of all air zones from the airfield to the drop location. If the airfield has planes over the capacity of the airfield, the mission will not launch.

A supply source, such as a large city, a port or a connection to the main front should be established as soon as possible in order to avoid the effects of being unsupplied. It is advisable to land paratroopers in an area near a supply source and to quickly assault that source, as supply sources tend to be well guarded. There is a new aerial supply system from Waking the Tiger Waking the Tiger DLC that will allow paratroops to fight for longer and hold the line against the enemy. Dropping on top of enemy troops is an attack with hefty penalties and certain destruction if defeated, unless the paratroops can retreat to adjacent friendly-controlled territory.

If experiencing problems with paradrops even when you have air superiority in the target zone, there may be another problem. If your target province lies within an air zone whose central node is outside the range of your transport planes, then it can cause an infinite delay and prevent paradrops. What this means is that, in a number of airfields, provinces might technically be in range of your transport planes, but your planes will never arrive at those provinces, because the target air zone's coverage node is outside of their range (or something like that). The Germany-to-Southern-England thing is a particularly obnoxious example, but it happens in a lot of other places too (the Pacific and South America, for example).

Fortunately, you can get around this broken game mechanic by, well, breaking it further. When your para drop order appears on the Air map screen (same place where you assign Air Superiority and Ground Support missions), left-click the order's circular icon (probably looks blank), then right-click reassign your order to an air zone whose central node is closer to your airfield (this will usually, but not always, be the air zone your airfield is located in).

The AI never attempts paradrops.

Air superiority[edit | edit source]

A paradrop, like a naval invasion, requires at least 70% air superiority in the strategic area the target belongs to. Air superiority is primarily attained by directing fighters to secure air superiority in a region, but (non-naval) bombing and close air support may help as well.

Transport planes[edit | edit source]

As with convoys for naval invasions, paradrop orders require transport planes in order to be executed. Contrary to other planes in the game, 1 transport plane does not represent 1 plane but rather a group of planes required to transport units.

The amount of transport planes required depends on the weight of the divisions to be transported. Paratroopers battalions weigh 0.5 and paratroop support companies 0.1. One transport plane has a carrying capacity of 2.0, and so could carry a division of 4 para battalions, or 3 para battalions with several support companies. If the air drop order planes total too little carrying capacity for the paratroops assigned, the transports will make several trips to ferry the paratroops, exposing them to more enemy attacks and causing the troops to arrive in separate waves.

Divisions need to be in a province with an airfield with transport planes in order to be able to execute the paradrop.

Front line and offensive line[edit | edit source]

General front line with general offensive line

Front line button.png A Front Line is the starting point of attacks into enemy territory. A player can either assign a whole country's border as a front line by clicking on the border or a player can assign a part of a country's border as a front line by holding the right mouse button and dragging the mouse over the provinces the player wants to belong to the front line deployment area. The AI will then move all the divisions into the position that the commander assigns to that front line. They are assigned either by having them selected when the front line button is clicked or added later by selecting them and Control-Clicking on that line. A player can also create several unconnected front lines and assign divisions between them, which may be particularly useful for a field marshal who may command an unlimited amount of divisions conducting various operations in different locations around the world. Divisions that are stationed at a front line that borders a non-ally will receive a planning bonus for their pre-attack preparation time. Front lines can only be positioned at a border, and the front line of battle between opposing forces counts as a border for this purpose.

Offensive line button.png An Offensive Line is a line that a player draws through enemy provinces that contain objectives for the assigned army units to move to and capture. From a front line, or from another offensive line, a player can draw one or several offensive lines or arrows that tell the AI how the player wants the selected plan's divisions to advance from the front line. The width and arc of the offensive line can be adjusted as described on the tooltip. If the mouse cursor is dragged over the offensive line or arrow the game will show the exact visualisation of how the AI will advance the divisions, step for step. ALT for edit mode and TAB to shift the arrow's base can be useful to direct the main effort.

Execute order button.png The order to execute battle plans is given with the button above the commander portrait, along with a tooltip that provides information and advice from the staff regarding the battle plan. The AI then executes the battle plan until the troops reach their offensive line which has then become the new front line. If that front line has offensive line orders beyond it then the execute button has to be pressed again to resume the advance from the new front line. Pausing to rest, resupply, refit, regroup, and coordinate further plans was common between phases of a major offensive. This is also a good time to detach troops to consolidate control over occupied territory, which usually involves smaller divisions that specialize in discouraging unrest. The Garrison Area battle plan order is one used in such a situation.

More examples for front line and offensive line[edit | edit source]

More examples for front line and offensive line

General front line and general offensive line, followed by another general offensive line. After the offense is started, it will go until the first line is reached and then pause. The execute button has to be pressed again to resume.
Field marshal front line and field marshal offensive line. By default for each general sub army front lines are drawn.
Field marshal front line and two general offensive lines. After drawing a front line with a field marshal you don't have to use a field marshal offensive line. You can also use general offensive lines, or mix.
If you hold the SHIFT-button while drawing a field marshal front line, you get a field marshal front line without sub army front lines. This can be useful for front lines for a high number of defensive divisions. All divisions assigned to that front line get the color of the field marshal. In the picture a field marshal offensive line is assigned

Spearhead[edit | edit source]

General front line with spearhead

Spearhead button.png The spearhead order starts from a front line and can be used alongside or instead of the Offensive Line within an army. Unlike the normal battle plan that spreads out to cover its flanks and adjusts to circumstances, spearheads advance in a narrow path one province wide to their objective, exactly as it was when first defined. This makes them suitable for blitzkrieg-style armored penetrations that can capture a specific goal or work with another spearhead pincer to encircle enemy cities or armies in pockets, sealed in a ring of steel by the mobile and regular infantry divisions following behind. Encircled armies can thus be annihilated, as routed divisions which lack friendly territory to retreat to are destroyed.

Spearheads (shortcut 'SHIFT + X') may be used only through territory past the attacking army's front line or territory assigned to a naval invasion (tanks rolling off the landing craft into battle). It may also only be used as an order for armies; Spearheads are unusable for any army group as a whole. Spearheads follow the exact paths traced on the map by right-clicking and dragging the mouse through successive provinces. This may enable the attacking forces to plan a path that bypasses forts, cities, or other undesirable terrain in order to maintain their momentum.

Fallback line[edit | edit source]

Fallback line

Fallback line button.png The player can draw fallback lines in controlled territory, and that will tell the AI upon order execution to move and deploy its divisions behind the fallback line in the same manner as with a front line, hold the line against enemy assaults, and counter-attack to restore the position if the line is broken. Unlike front lines, divisions stationed at fallback lines do not receive a planning bonus; however, divisions that are stationed a long time in a province can accumulate an entrenchment bonus while remaining in that position.

Area defense[edit | edit source]

Area defense. In this picture the order 'guard naval bases' is selected. The divisions distribute on the tiles with naval bases.

Garrison area button.png Area Defense assigns the entire army to guard an area rather than a front line. It is mainly useful to protect against naval invasions and paratroopers. As the divisions are spread out over one or more states rather than concentrated in a position for defense, this posture is ill-suited near the front line. If part of the area is lost to the enemy, then the garrison units will automatically attempt to recover the lost territory.

The defense command has multiple subsections (see graphic):

  • Protect Victory Points
  • Guard Ports
  • Guard Coast
  • Protect Airbases
  • Guard Forts
  • Guard Supply Hubs and Railway

Garrison Order.png

The player can choose which of these they wish to guard and the UI will tell the player how many divisions the AI considers necessary to satisfy the command. The garrison area order triples the limit of units under a commander to 72 without incurring a debuff.

For defending an area against partisans, see garrison.

Planning bonus[edit | edit source]

When a division is at the starting position of an offensive battle plan (i.e. a battle plan containing at least one Offensive Line or Spearhead order) and is neither moving or fighting, it will accumulate a planning bonus at the start of each day, expressed as a percentage, until a maximum planning bonus is reached. This confers greater combat performance for the division.

The max planning bonus for each division (initially capped at 30%), or the rate of daily planning bonus accumulation, can be increased by certain Land doctrine choices and National Spirits. The base daily gain is 2%, so it will take e.g. 15 days to accumulate to the 30% cap. Using a general will also add both to the max planning bonus and the rate of daily planning bonus accumulation. Each point of a general's planning rating will contribute +2% of max planning bonus, and +5% to the daily planning bonus accumulation. However, the +5% to the daily planning bonus is multiplicative to the 2% daily base rate. So for example, when using a general with a planning rating of 4, they will add +8% to the max planning bonus (so 30% + 8% = 38%, assuming no other bonuses), and the daily planning bonus accumulation will be 2.4% (2% * (1 + (4 * 5% = 20%)) = 2.4%). Continuing the example, it will now take 16 days to complete the full planning bonus (38% / 2.4% = 15.8 days).

When a division with a planning bonus is moving or fighting, it will lose some of its planning bonus each day. The planning bonus for a division will decay by 1% per day if the division is being automatically managed by the battle plan AI. If a division is manually commanded by the human player, the planning bonus will decay 3% daily.

Strategy[edit | edit source]

Since achieving the maximum planning bonus will take a number of days, it may be worthwhile to prepare battle plans during peacetime, so that each division will have a full planning bonus upon the outbreak of war.

If the player wishes to minimise the rate of planning bonus decay, it may be helpful to prepare a complex battle plan containing multiple orders. This can enable divisions to achieve their objectives without requiring manual commands from the player.[8]

Alternatively, the human player can micromanage their divisions, to achieve finer control or the ability to react to changing circumstances. This presents a tradeoff, as planning bonus will be lost more quickly when manual commands are issued.

Manual control and battle plan; support attack[edit | edit source]

Divisions that belong to a battle plan and receive a manual order will revert back to AI control after implementing the order.

Once combat is joined, the player may select an unengaged division and then Ctrl+right click (or Ctrl+alt+right click) on the combat icon to make the selected division join in a support attack. This allows the division to assist in the attack without automatically advancing the division into the enemy-occupied area upon victory. The battle plan AI may automatically order such a support attack, as well.

Battle plan and allies[edit | edit source]

Players can see their allies' battle plans (an option that can be toggled on and off in the lower right corner of the screen). This may help in multiplayer to coordinate with allies and in single player to understand what the AI is doing because AI countries create their own battle plans.

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  7. define AMPHIBIOUS_INVADE_LANDING_PENALTY_DECREASE, resulting in effectively 101%, 96.8%, and 82.5% of the normal penalty with '36, '40 and '44 tech respectively
  8. For an example of this, see Zwirbaum's battle plan tutorial on Youtube