China is a regional power located in East Asia. Though it isn't one of the seven majors, it always ends up as a Major Power due to it leading the Chinese United Front. It borders Japan and its puppet states of Mengkukuo and Manchukuo to the north, Tibet to the west and British Raj to the south west. China may also border the United Kingdom, Portugal and France due to their colonial holdings after reclaiming its core territories. Due to China being fragmented by the warlord era, much of its core territory is owned by warlord cliques with the Yunnan Clique and the Guangxi Clique in the south, the Sinkiang Clique to the far north west and the Xibei San Ma Clique and Shanxi Clique to the north. It also borders Communist China in the north and both nations engage in events revolving around the ongoing Chinese civil war.
The nation is fractured from civil wars and political strife, making it seemingly weak and easy prey for the Japanese. However, with the second-highest base population – 340.4 million – (which will increase to an even higher level once China is united) and a great deal of room to grow an industrial juggernaut, China can buy time and put it to good use. If they can overcome their fractiousness and stand together, China can turn Japan's attack into a dangerous meat grinder to sap Japan's manpower and turn themselves into a power on par with the other world majors.
- 1 Historical background
- 2 Events
- 3 National focus
- 4 Technology
- 5 Politics
- 6 Staff and designers
- 7 Economy
- 8 Military
- 9 Strategies and guides
- 10 Achievements
The history of the Republic of China begins after the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of a constitutional republic put an end to 2,000 years of rule by various, occasionally competitive, imperial dynasties. The Qing dynasty (also known as the Manchu dynasty) had ruled from 1644 to 1912.
The republic experienced many trials and tribulations after its founding and is fractured by both internal and external elements. The central government was unable to assert full control over the country, resulting in the frontier regions of Uriankhai ( Tannu Tuva), Mongolia and Tibet breaking away and becoming de facto independent, and the provinces controlled by often disobedient warlord generals. Worse still, the Western powers and Japan continued to maintain their "spheres of influence" carved out during the Qing dynasty to force trade and exploitation.
In 1928, the republic was nominally unified by Chiang Kai-Shek under the "Kuomintang" (KMT) – also known as Chinese Nationalist Party – after the Northern Expedition, and embarked on a program of industrialization and modernization. However, the republic remained rife with conflicts as the Nationalist government struggled to keep the warlords in check (represented in-game by the presence of autonomous warlord cliques of Shanxi, Yunnan, Guangxi Clique, Xibei San Ma and Sinkiang), while fighting a civil war with the nascent Communist Party of China.
On September 18, 1931, the Kwantung Army of Japan staged a false flag operation as a pretext to invade northeastern China in what became known as the Mukden Incident, leading to the swift occupation of northeastern China and the subsequent creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932. A period of relative peace ensued for the next few years, until it was broken by Japan with a full-scale invasion in 1937 after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. Nationalist and Communist China set aside hostilities and formed the Second United Front against Japan. The Second Sino-Japanese War lasted until 1945 with the unconditional surrender of Japan, following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet invasion of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War, however, would reignite almost immediately thereafter, with major hostilities lasting from 1946 until 1950, after Communist forces had taken control of mainland China and the Republic of China had retreated to Taiwan. To this day, although combat has ceased, a peace treaty has never been signed, and the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China both claim to be the only legitimate government of all China.
- Main article: Chinese events
- Main article: Chinese national focus tree
China's unique focus tree has 4 main branches:
- Three Principles of the People
- Focuses on the internal social affairs of the nation and regional political relations.
- Military Affairs Commission
- Focuses on military and fortification reform.
- Unified Industrial Planning
- Focuses on economic and technological build-up of the nation.
- Invite Foreign Investors
- Allows for expansion of foreign investment aimed at increasing Chinese power. This branch is shared with Communist China and Manchukuo.
Chinese minors that destroy or displace the Chinese national government and declare themselves the legitimate government will adopt this national focus tree. Players of Chinese minors should review their own focus tree and that of Nationalist or Communist China when planning their game.
China starts with only Great War era technology and with only 2 research slots. It can gain three further slots from its national focuses: “Expand the Academica Sinica”, “Chemical Research Institute”, and “Rural Schooling". While the first extra research slot is easily obtainable, the remaining two require considerable effort to unlock, especially the one from “Rural Schooling”, which requires at least 8 focuses (and potentially more, since most of those focuses will increase inflation which can only be reduced by completing other focuses).
|Army Technology||Naval Technology||Air Technology||Electronics & Industry|
China in 1936 is a fractured and weakened nation, plagued by intra-KMT struggles, warlordism and an ever-present threat of a communist takeover. Aside from Nationalist China itself, several Chinese warlords (specifically Yunnan, the Guangxi Clique, Shanxi, Xibei San Ma and Sinkiang) also control parts of China, dividing up the country into several smaller mutually hostile factions. China starts in an uneasy truce with Communist China, while Japan is to its north preparing for war and is likely to invade by mid-1937. Another diplomatic problem China has is one of its national spirits, "Communist Uprisings", which, if communist support rises high enough, will cause a random state to switch over to Communist China's control. This is a highly deleterious national spirit as the loss of a state means loss of resources, factories and manpower among other crippling penalties.
With the Waking the Tiger expansion, China no longer starts with "Communist Uprisings"; instead it has to contend with the Chinese Power Struggle mechanic, in which the communists and the warlords are able to use political power to contest leadership over China after completing certain national focuses. Communist China is also able to infiltrate and stage uprisings in Chinese states and seize control of them. In addition, China begins with additional, crippling National Spirits that severely reduce its overall combat effectiveness across the board. These require time-consuming military and bureaucratic reform, through both National Focuses and Decisions, to remove.
China starts with two national spirits in the base game:
Despotism is a form of government in which a single person rules with absolute power.
- Can’t impose its ideology on other countries
- Can’t puppet countries in a peace conference
- Ideology drift defense: -30%
World tension limits
- Generate war goal : 50%
- Join faction: 40%
- Lend-lease: 40%
- Send volunteers: 40%
- Guarantee: 40%
Staff and designers
These are choices of advisors and design companies for China.
|Sino-German Technical Mission||Heavy Tank Designer||
One of the following must be true:
At peace with German Reich
|Morozov Design Bureau||Mobile Tank Designer||
Has completed focus Hire Soviet Designer
Has completed focus Mining Commission
|Anshan Steel Works||Industrial Concern||
|Western Refinery||Refining Concern||
|Sino-Soviet Resource Survey||Refining Concern||
|Shanghai Electronics||Electronics Concern||
|Bo Yibo||Military Theorist||
|Fang Zeyi||Air Warfare Theorist||
|Huang Shen||Naval Theorist||
|Claire Lee Chennault||Air Warfare Theorist||
Has completed focus Hire Chennault
|Conscription Law||Economy Law||Trade Law|
| Volunteer Only
|| Civilian Economy
|| Free Trade
Industry and resources
- China starts off with a modest industrial base that can be grown to an impressive size once it unites with the warlords.
- China starts with a very low amount of natural resources; however, more is within easy reach as subjugating the Guangxi Clique will allow China to significantly increase its resource pool.
- As a result of the national spirit Nine Power Treaty, China is restricted to Free Trade, causing both units of oil, 7 units of tungsten and 28 units of steel to be exported.
In 1936, China starts with a sizable but under-equipped army, and is supplemented with a small navy and air force. Overall, it has a total manpower of 3.06M, of which 276.00K is tied up in the army, 11.90K in the navy and 2.60K in the air force, leaving 2.78M available for recruitment.
The army in 1936 starts with 52 infantry divisions, with 28 of them made up of 4 infantry battalions and 24 of them made up of 6 infantry battalions, and 5 cavalry divisions each of 4 battalions.
Examples of alternative division template names for the National Revolutionary Army include:
- Garrison Units - Jingbei
- Provincial Division - Zhengshi Shi
- Cavalry Division - Qibing Shi
- Reorganized Division - Zheng Bian Shi
- Mountain Division(German Trained) - De Xie Shi
- Mechanized Division - Motuo Hua Bubing Shi
The navy in 1936 starts with 1 Ninghai-class light cruiser, 1 Haiqi-class coastal defense ship, 5 Hairong-class coastal defense ships and 2 Jianwei-class destroyers docked in Shanghai. Another Ninghai-class light cruiser, the Pinghai, is under construction at game start.
The air force in 1936 starts with 30 interwar fighters stationed in Beijing, and 70 interwar fighters and 15 interwar bombers stationed in Shanghai.
|Wang Shu-ming||Ground Support (Expert)||
|Zhou Zhirou||Old Guard||
|Claire Lee Chennault||Ground Support (Expert)||
Requires focus Hire Chennault
Strategies and guides
China starts off right in the middle of the Century of Humiliation and is still laboring and suffering from its effects, with corruption and incompetence hampering its governmental, military and industrial performance. In addition to that, China is also threatened by Japan and will most likely only have around a year to prepare before war breaks out.
Thus, China will have to focus heavily on industrial build-up in order to allow it to properly equip and outfit its military to defend against Japan. Taking "Unified Industrial Planning" first is arguably the best choice for national Focuses, since "Expand the Academica Sinica" is available immediately after, which unlocks an additional research slot, allowing you to put more effort into both Industrial and Electrical research. The National Focus "Invite Foreign Investors" grants two civilian factories (which cannot get damaged) and if you can conquer the Shanxi clique, the "Taiyuan Arsenal" and "Develop the Hanyan Arsenal" will grant additional military factories..
A look at the army
China also suffers from the Nation Spirit "Army Corruption", applies an immense -50% penalty to all division attack and defense, making China's military very ineffective in combat. This makes China's military so weak in fact, that when taking into account Japan's division templates this means that a force of comparable Chinese units might still lose a battle even when outnumbering the Japanese. You are essentially sending your men into a fight they are not likely to win and the only military strategy that China is capable of pulling off at this stage, given its incompetent leadership, is sending in its disorganized units en masse and relying on its massive army to win the day. Significant casualties are to be expected for your soldiers and it may very well be that China's rivers will have to run red with the blood of their sacrifice if China is to have any hope of an independent future.
But there is, however, hope. Even though China's units cannot match Japan's in battle, it is possible to compensate for that by bringing in a bigger stick to the fight. That bigger stick is Artillery; Artillery is quite affordable for China and grants a significant increase to both Divison Soft Attack and Hard Attack. If you place enough Artillery in a single division, you can actually increase its firepower to the point where, even with the penalty, you are able to hold your own against Japan through raw numbers alone. As such, mass-producing and equipping your units with Line Artillery can give your army units the necessary bite to allow them to more easily compete with Japanese units until the Army Corruption national spirit can be removed. In addition to regular Artillery, adding in Anti-Tank and Anti-Air artillery can also be very helpful for dealing with Japanese Tanks, Trucks and Planes, evening the odds in battle.
- For early division changes:
- The Sanjiao Jun infantry can be expanded to 7 infantry battalions right away. From here, it can branch in two directions (or some of each):
- 8 Infantry, 1 Artillery, 1 Anti-Air, 1 Anti-Tank can counter tier 2 light tanks, and help with the swarms of planes Japan will bring while also having the firepower to oppose enemy Infantry.
- The standard 7 Infantry, 2 Artillery packs significant Soft Attack against enemy infantry and also has a fair degree of Hard Attack for dealing with Tanks and Trucks, making it a good workhorse for general use.
- The Juntuán garrison infantry can be expanded to 5 infantry battalions, for an even 10 combat width.
- The Qibing Jun cavalry can be duplicated:
- The original Qibing Jun can then be expanded to 5 cavalry battalions, for an even 10 combat width. They can be given support artillery later.
- The duplicate can be named Xiàn Bīng (Military Police) and left at the default 4 battalions for use later with an MP support company to root out resistance. Highlight the name and copy+paste it into the game to make life easier.
- It can be tempting to research mountaineers, but considering China's small number of research slots, and the limited number of battalions for special forces available, it results in a very small payoff.
- When using the Mass Assault Doctrine, the -0.4 combat width for infantry will allow considerable additions later in the game.
- Alternatively, if one wishes to rely heavily on Artillry, one could also switch over to the Superior Firepower Doctrine, to maximize the firepower of Artillery.
- The Sanjiao Jun infantry can be expanded to 7 infantry battalions right away. From here, it can branch in two directions (or some of each):
"Military Affairs Commission" should be taken early on to start down on the path to removing Army Corruption.
Defense of the Coastlines
Guard China's coast closely! If enough firepower is provided and effort is given, China is capable of holding off a Japanese attack from Manchuria but Japan has an Ace in the hole to undermine that and achieve victory. That Ace in the hole is Naval invasions; if China manages to significantly slow down or even halt the Japanese advance into China from Manchuria, Japan is very likely to attempt to launch a naval invasion to open up a second front and overwhelm China by overextending its weak military.
To prevent this from happening, make sure to station at least 3-4 garrison divisions (again, with Artillery to even the odds) at every port on China's coast to prevent Japan from gaining a foothold to open up a second front. You should also have a handful of "reserve garrison" units at the ready to reinforce any port that is under attack. If Japan attacks a port and the battle is not going well, move the reserve units in to assist the garrison units in holding off the attack. If Japan manages to defeat the garrison and capture a port then unless you manage to retake it quickly enough, this can potentially spell disaster as while China is capable of holding off Japan on one front, a second front will very likely be too much for China's weakened military to handle as they will likely no be able to field enough units quickly enough to mount a workable defense.
China's low starting stability reduces political power gain as well as factory output, which are both very important for China in the coming years. Being at war with less than 50% stability can also cause negative events to occur. Therefore, increasing China's stability is a top priority. Fortunately, this is one of the easier problems to solve, with several options at China's disposal:
- The Three Principles of the People focus branch contains several bonuses to stability.
- Lin Sen and Soong Mei-Ling can be appointed as political advisers for extra stability.
- The Improved Worker Conditions decision is a good way to gain some extra stability.
The biggest barrier to winning the war against Japan, this national spirit applies a nasty -50% penalty to all division attack and defense. The "Army Reform" national focus will grant access to decisions to reduce and eventually remove the national spirit altogether but this requires a large amount of Army XP, which is difficult to acquire when not at war. Historical Japan will trigger the Marco Polo Bridge Incident as its 8th focus, so China should make sure this focus is completed by then or at least soon after.
At significant political power cost, a decent amount of army experience can be gained by sending an attache to one of the sides of the Spanish Civil war. This may speed up the process of getting rid of army corruption.
China starts with just two research slots and few researched technologies. Expand the Academia Sinica is a good early focus for the extra research slot, but additional research slots will take longer. Early research should focus on industry and infantry, as China starts with a huge surplus of manpower but an underdeveloped industry.
The Nine Power Treaty prevents China from switching away from the Free Trade law, which will generally result in many civilian factories being traded away for China's steel needs. Removing the Treaty requires progressing through one of the diplomatic focus branches. The German or Soviet branches are the fastest way to accomplish this, with a total of 7 focuses being required. Note that these two paths typically require improved relations with the chosen nation over that provided by focuses, as well as the Motorized tech which may take more than the length of two focuses to research.
Removing the Nine Powers treaty may not be an urgent concern however. If one is able to conquer the Guangxi Clique, its plentiful resources will allow China to more easily satisfy its own resource needs and can make it more valuable to export these for a large number of civilian factories which one can turn around and use to import what one needs over land such as from the USSR. This can be used to massively supplement your own factories. In addition, the research and production boosts make free trade a very valuable law as long as you are exporting as much as you are importing.
China starts with Low Inflation, a deleterious national spirit that reduces factory output and the number of civilian factories available for construction, and its effects will progressively worsen if any national focus that increases inflation is completed:
If China reaches a state of Economic Collapse, any remaining focuses that increase inflation will be locked. To remove its effects, focuses that reduce inflation must be completed. In fact, it is prudent to alternate between focuses that increase inflation and focuses that reduce inflation so as to mitigate the negative effects of inflation. However, since there are only a limited number of focuses that reduce inflation, it is important to complete the focus Forced Loans, which will unlock a decision, re-enactable once every 90 days, that reduces inflation by one level at the cost of 100 Political Power, -3% Stability and -3% War Support.
A choice must be made about whether or not to go down the welfare national focus tree. This will increase one's war support but will also raise inflation. Increasing one's war support may also be done rather cheaply through propaganda without increasing inflation. However, without going down this tree, China can only get 4 total research spots. This may not be a major concern as China both may not need to research many technologies (naval and radar and perhaps tank and air technology with licensed production) and can make up for its technological inferiority with massive numerical superiority. Not going down this path also frees up time to focus on the other national focuses. It may be best to first prosecute the war with Japan to a close and then start working one's way down the Welfare branch while at peace, making it less likely for the Inflation to cause problems while at war.
Subjugating the Warlords
One strategy is to go down the national focus tree to the focus “Subjugate the Warlords” (through Three Principles of the People, Nationalism and Prioritize the Interior). This makes China send an ultimatum to Shanxi, Sinkiang, Guangxi Clique, Yunnan and Xibei San Ma. You will easily overpower them with your superior power, as long as you fight the ones that don’t submit one by one. You can then attack Communist China through the focus Anti-Communism which gives you a war goal on them. Once you have done this, taking on Japan will be a lot easier due to your new might, as you now control a lot more of your core territory.