China is a regional power located in East Asia. Though it isn't one of the seven majors, it always starts out as a Major Power due to it leading the Chinese United Front. It borders Japan and its puppet states of Mengkukuo and Manchukuo to the north, Tibet to the west and British Raj to the south west. China may also border the United Kingdom, Portugal and France due to their colonial holdings after reclaiming its core territories. Due to China being fragmented by the warlord era, much of its core territory is owned by warlord cliques with the Yunnan Clique and the Guangxi Clique in the south, the Sinkiang Clique to the far north west and the Xibei San Ma Clique and Shanxi Clique to the north. It also borders Communist China in the north and both nations engage in events revolving around the ongoing Chinese civil war. The nation is fractured from civil wars and political strife, making it seemingly weak and easy prey for the Japanese. However, with the second highest base population – 340.4 million – (which will increase to an even higher level once China is united) and a great deal of room to grow an industrial juggernaut, China can buy time and put it to good use. If they can overcome their fractiousness and stand together, China can turn Japan's attack into a dangerous meat grinder to sap Japan's manpower and turn themselves into a power on par with the other world majors.
The history of the Republic of China begins after the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of a constitutional republic put an end to 2,000 years of rule by various, occasionally competitive, imperial dynasties. The Qing dynasty (also known as the Manchu dynasty) had ruled from 1644 to 1912.
The republic experienced many trials and tribulations after its founding, and is fractured by both internal and external elements. The central government was unable to assert full control over the country, resulting in the frontier regions of Uriankhai ( Tannu Tuva), Mongolia and Tibet breaking away and becoming de facto independent, and the provinces controlled by often disobedient warlord generals. Worse still, the Western powers and Japan continued to maintain their "spheres of influence" carved out during the Qing dynasty to force trade and exploitation.
In 1928, the republic was nominally unified by Chiang Kai-Shek under the "Kuomintang" (KMT) – also known as Chinese Nationalist Party – after the Northern Expedition, and embarked on a program of industrialization and modernization. However, the republic remained rife with conflicts as the Nationalist government struggled to keep the warlords in check (represented in-game by the presence of autonomous warlord cliques), while fighting a civil war with the nascent Communist Party of China.
On September 18, 1931, the Kwantung Army of Japan staged a false flag operation as a pretext to invade northeastern China in what became known as the Mukden Incident, leading to the swift occupation of northeastern China and the subsequent creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932. A period of relative peace ensued for the next few years, until it was broken by Japan with a full-scale invasion in 1937 after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. Nationalist and Communist China set aside hostilities and formed the Second United Front against Japan. The Second Sino-Japanese War lasted until 1945 with the unconditional surrender of Japan, following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet invasion of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War, however, would reignite almost immediately thereafter, with major hostilities lasting from 1946 until 1950, after Communist forces had taken control of mainland China and the Republic of China had retreated to Taiwan. To this day, although combat has ceased, a peace treaty has never been signed, and the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China both claim to be the only legitimate government of all China.
- Main article: Chinese events
- Main article: Chinese national focus tree
China's unique focus tree has 4 main branches:
- Three Principles of the People
- Focuses on the internal social affairs of the nation and regional political relations.
- Military Affairs Commission
- Focuses on military and fortification reform.
- Unified Industrial Planning
- Focuses on economic and technological build-up of the nation.
- Invite Foreign Investors
- Allows for expansion of foreign investment aimed at increasing Chinese power. This branch is shared with Communist China and Manchukuo.
Chinese minors that destroy or displace the Chinese national government gain access to additional focuses from the national tree, which may be necessary to unlock certain actions in the minor's focus tree or other options (e.g., offering citizenship to Alexander von Falkenhausen in order to recruit him as Chief of Army). Players of Chinese minors should review their own focus tree and that of Nationalist or Communist China when planning their game.
China starts with only Great War era technology and with only 2 research slots. It can gain three further slots from its national focuses: “Expand the Academica Sinica”, “Chemical Research Institute”, and “Rural Schooling". While the first extra research slot is easily obtainable, the remaining two require considerable effort to unlock, especially the one from “Rural Schooling”, which requires at least 8 focuses (and potentially more, since most of those focuses will increase inflation which can only be reduced by completing other focuses).
|Army Technology||Naval Technology||Air Technology||Electronics & Industry|
This section may contain outdated information that is inaccurate for the current version of the game. The last version it was verified as up to date for was 1.5.
China in 1936 is a fractured and weakened nation, plagued by intra-KMT struggles, warlordism and an ever-present threat of a communist takeover. Aside from Nationalist China itself, several Chinese warlords (specifically Yunnan, the Guangxi Clique, Shanxi, Xibei San Ma and Sinkiang) also control parts of China, dividing up the country into several smaller mutually hostile factions. China starts in an uneasy truce with Communist China, while Japan is to its north preparing for war and is likely to invade by mid-1937. Another diplomatic problem China has is one of its national spirits, "Communist Uprisings", which, if communist support rises high enough, will cause a random state to switch over to Communist China's control. This is a highly deleterious national spirit as the loss of a state means loss of resources, factories and manpower among other crippling penalties.
With the Waking the Tiger expansion, China no longer starts with "Communist Uprisings"; instead it has to contend with the Chinese Power Struggle mechanic, in which the communists and the warlords are able to use political power to contest leadership over China after completing certain national focuses. Communist China is also able to infiltrate and stage uprisings in Chinese states and seize control of them. In addition, China begins with additional, crippling National Spirits that severely reduce its overall combat effectiveness across the board. These require time-consuming military and bureaucratic reform, through both National Focuses and Decisions, to remove.
China starts with two national spirits in the base game:
The tensions between communists and nationalists are present in all corners of the country. If communist support in the country goes too high, the communists will take control of a state.
We still labor under the effects of the Unequal Treaties that formalize the "Open Door Policy" towards China. The foreigners still have extraterritorial rights, and we are not in full control of our economy.
Our armed force are rife with corruption and nepotism. If we want to turn them into a potent fighting force, we will have to engage in a lengthy and expensive program of army reform.
The chaos of the civil war has disrupted the creation of an effective state apparatus. More than a third of available recruits are not drafted, simply because no one knows they exist. Reforming the examination process will ensure that we hire competent people.
Our officers are not yet up to the task of managing a modern war. Hard lessons will have to be learned before they are truly equal to their counterparts in other nations. Educating them will be part of a bigger programm of army reform.
Despotism is a form of government in which a single person rules with absolute power.
- Can’t impose its ideology on other countries
- Can’t puppet countries in a peace conference
- Ideology drift defense: -30%
World tension limitsEdit
- Generate war goal : 50%
- Join faction: 40%
- Lend-lease: 40%
- Send volunteers: 40%
- Guarantee: 40%
Staff and designersEdit
These are choices of advisors and design companies for China.
|Designer||Type||Effect||Cost ( )|
|Morozov Design Bureau||Mobile Tank Designer||
Requires focus Hire Soviet Designer
|Sino-German Technical Mission||Heavy Tank Designer||
Requires either focus Chinese Panzers or national spirit German Military Advisors
|Concern||Type||Effect||Cost ( )|
Requires focus Mining Commission
|Anshan Steel Works||Industrial Concern||
|Western Refinery||Refining Concern||
|Sino-Soviet Resource Survey||Refining Concern||
|Shanghai Electronics||Electronics Concern||
|Theorist||Type||Effect||Cost ( )|
|Bo Yibo||Military Theorist||
|Fang Zeyi||Air Warfare Theorist||
|Huang Shen||Naval Theorist||
|Claire Lee Chennault||Air Warfare Theorist||
Requires focus Hire Chennault
|Conscription Law||Economy Law||Trade Law|
| Volunteer Only
|| Civilian Economy
|| Free Trade
10 Military Factories
1 Naval Dockyard
18 Civilian Factories
China has a growing industrial base that will grow quite big once it unites with the warlords.
China starts with a very low amount of natural resources, with only 2 units of oil, 9 units of tungsten and 35 units of steel.
In 1936, China starts with a sizable but under-equipped army, and is supplemented with a small air force and a token navy. Overall, it has a total manpower of 3.06M, of which 276.00K is tied up in the army, 2.60K in the air force, and 3.50K in the navy, leaving 2.78M available for recruitment.
The army in 1936 starts with 52 infantry divisions, with 28 of them made up of 4 infantry battalions and 24 of them made up of 6 infantry battalions, and 5 cavalry divisions each of 4 battalions.
The navy in 1936 starts with 5 Light Cruiser I and 2 Destroyer I docked in Shanghai.
The air force in 1936 starts with 30 interwar fighters stationed in Beijing, and 70 interwar fighters and 15 interwar bombers stationed in Shanghai.
|Name||Type||Effect||Cost ( )|
|Wang Shu-ming||Ground Support (Expert)||
|Zhou Zhirou||Old Guard||
|Claire Lee Chennault||Ground Support (Expert)||
Requires focus Hire Chennault
Strategies and guidesEdit
- Taking Unified Industrial Planning first is arguably the best choice, since Expand the Academica Sinica is available immediately after, which unlocks an additional research slot.
- Invite Foreign Investors for two civilian factories (which cannot get damaged) and Military Affairs Commission should be taken early on.
- For early division changes:
- The Sanjiao Jun infantry can be expanded to 7 infantry battalions right away. From here, it can branch in two directions (or some of each):
- 8 Infantry, 1 Artillery, 1 Anti-Air can counter tier 2 light tanks, and help with the swarms of planes Japan will bring. The lower resource cost also makes them much easier to build than AT guns.
- The standard 7 Infantry, 2 Artillery
- The Juntuán garrison infantry can be expanded to 5 infantry battalions, for an even 10 combat width.
- The Qibing Jun cavalry can be duplicated:
- The original Qibing Jun can then be expanded to 5 cavalry battalions, for an even 10 combat width. They can be given support artillery later.
- The duplicate can be named Xiàn Bīng (Military Police) and left at the default 4 battalions for use later with an MP support company. Highlight the name and copy+paste it into the game to make life easier.
- It can be tempting to research mountaineers, but considering China's small number of research slots, and the limited number of battalions for special forces available, it results in a very small payoff.
- When using the Mass Assault Doctrine, the -0.4 combat width for infantry will allow considerable additions later in the game.
- The Sanjiao Jun infantry can be expanded to 7 infantry battalions right away. From here, it can branch in two directions (or some of each):
China's low starting stability reduces political power gain as well as factory output, which are both very important for China in the coming years. Being at war with less than 50% stability can also cause negative events to occur. Therefore, increasing China's stability is a top priority. Fortunately, this is one of the easier problems to solve, with several options at China's disposal:
- The Three Principles of the People focus branch contains several bonuses to stability.
- Lin Sen and Soong Mei-Ling can be appointed as political advisers for extra stability.
- The Improved Worker Conditions decision is a good way to gain some extra stability.
Another barrier to winning the war against Japan, this national spirit applies a whopping -50% to all division attack and defense. The decisions to reduce and eventually eliminate this penalty require the Army Reform national focus and a large amount of Army XP, which is difficult to acquire when not at war. Historical Japan will trigger the Marco Polo Bridge Incident as its 8th focus, so China should make sure this focus is completed by then or at least soon after.
At significant political power cost, significant army experience can be gained by sending an attache to one of the sides of the Spanish Civil war. This may speed up the process of getting rid of army corruption.
China starts with just two research slots and few researched technologies. Expand the Academia Sinica is a good early focus for the extra research slot, but additional research slots will take longer. Early research should focus on industry and infantry, as China starts with a surplus of manpower but underdeveloped industry.
The Nine Power Treaty prevents China from switching away from the Free Trade law, which will generally result in many civilian factories being traded away for China's steel needs. Removing the Treaty requires progressing through one of the diplomatic focus branches. The German or Soviet branches are the fastest way to accomplish this, with a total of 7 focuses being required. Note that these two paths typically require a bit of extra relations with the chosen nation over that provided by focuses, as well as the Motorized tech which may take more than the length of two focuses to research.
Removing the Nine Powers treaty may not be an urgent concern however. If one is able to conquer the Guanxi Clique, its vast resources may make it more valuable to export these for a large number of civilian factories which one can turn around and use to import what one needs over land such as from the USSR. This can be used to massively supplement your own factories. In addition, the research and production boosts make free trade a very valuable law as long as you are exporting as much as you are importing.
China starts with Low Inflation, a deleterious national spirit that reduces factory output and the number of civilian factories available for construction, and its effects will progressively worsen if any national focus that increases inflation is completed:
Inflation has started to affect the economy significantly. We should consider counter-measures before things get out of hand.
Government-issued money is worth less and less, purchasing power is dropping and some goods are only available to people with the right connections.
The value of our currency is evaporating. Prices rise dramatically from day to day. We must very urgently take counter-measures before we suffer a complete collapse.
Our system of currency has completely collapsed. In large parts of the country, trade has reverted to a barter system. Poverty is widespread. Our employees use the paper money we pay them with to heat their homes. An aggressive program of financial and economic reform is needed to resolve the situation.
Once China is in a state of Economic Collapse, any remaining focuses that increase inflation will be locked. To remove its effects, focuses that reduce inflation must be completed. In fact, it is prudent to alternate between focuses that increase inflation and focuses that reduce inflation so as to mitigate the negative effects of inflation. However, since there are only a limited number of focuses that reduce inflation, it is important to complete the focus Forced Loans, which will unlock a decision, re-enactable once every 90 days, that reduces inflation by one level at the cost of 100 Political Power, -3% Stability and -3% War Support.
A choice must be made about whether or not to go down the welfare national focus tree. This will increase one's war support but this may also be done rather cheaply through propaganda without increasing inflation. However, without going down this tree, China can only get 4 total research spots. This may not be a major concern as China both may not need to research many technologies (naval and radar and perhaps tank and air technology with licensed production) and can make up for its technological inferiority with massive numerical superiority. Not going down this path also frees up time to focus on the other national focuses.