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Production refers to the manufacturing of Equipment.png equipment such as tanks, guns, planes and ships used by the military to conduct a country's war. The construction of buildings in states and provinces, including both military installations and economic development, is known as construction.


There are three types of factories:

  • Civilian factory Civilian factories: Construction (including repair), trade, consumer goods, and Intelligence agencies and their upgrades.
  • Military factory Military factories: Infantry equipment, transport, artillery, armor, and aircraft. These have a base output of Production Cost.png 4.5. This value is then multiplied by Production efficiency.png Production Efficiency.
    Thus, the production formula is :
    For example, at 50% Production efficiency.png Production Efficiency with a 10% Modifier on Factory Output, the production would be
  • Naval dockyard Naval Dockyards: Ships, Submarines and Convoys. Have a base output of Production cost (naval).png 2.5, but always have a production efficiency of 100%. Output do effect.

The main output modifiers for military factories and naval dockyards are Concentrated or Dispersed industry technology, while civilian factories are mainly affected by Construction industry technology and the economy law.

Production lines[edit]

See also: Construction
for production by civilian factories

Production of military and naval factories/dockyards are organized into production lines, each of which produces a single type of equipment at a time. Up to 150 factories may be assigned to a single production line, but a country can operate multiple lines producing the same item. Ships have a lower limit of dockyards that can be assigned to build them. Capital ships may, at any given time, have no more than 5; screen ships, 10; submarines and convoys, 15.

Production line legend sketch.png

Production efficiency.png Production Efficiency[edit]

Loss in production with respect to the fraction of starting production efficiency versus the production efficiency cap. This is measured in factory-days relative to running at production efficiency cap for the entire period.

Each production line has its own efficiency level which determines how good it is at producing its current Equipment.png equipment. The higher the efficiency, the faster the production line produces equipment, up to a maximum value. Running the same production line continuously gradually increases its efficiency.

Production efficiency starts at a base (10% without modifiers) and increases each day up to a production efficiency cap (50% without modifiers). All of these can potentially be increased by industry technology, research, and national focuses. The base production efficiency growth per day is:

(All quantities can be expressed in terms of percent or as a fraction, as long as they are expressed in the same terms everywhere.)

The minimum possible base growth per day is thus about 0.05% (near the starting cap of 50%), and the maximum 1% (10%/100% production efficiency).

Alternatively, the relative time in days to reach a particular level of production efficiency is given by

For example, going from 25% of the cap to 75% of the cap takes days.

Therefore it takes at most 500 days for a fully-supplied line to reach the cap. This represents a shortfall of at most 166.6 factory-days of output relative to a factory running at cap for the same period.

Production efficiency is tracked separately for each factory. Adding one or more new factories to an existing production line reduces production efficiency of the added factories. It is important to know that the factories already in the line do not lose efficiency - what they are making has not changed. Only the new factory has minimum efficiency.

Caution: When military factories are lost or damaged and total factory count declines, the loss comes off the bottom of the list and those factories lose their efficiency. A wise precaution is to move your high priority and high efficiency production lines up in the list.

Production efficiency.png Production Efficiency Retention[edit]

Also, switching a production line to a related type of equipment cancels production of the current unit and the time spent on it, and reduces its efficiency depending on how drastic the change is. However, the player gets to keep a % of efficiency based on the change type. See below.

  • 90%: Different variant of the same model (e.g. Panzer III Ausf. F -> Panzer III Ausf. G [variants of the German medium tank 1], this also includes switching from license production to own production of the same equipment type, e.g. Italian Fighter II C.202 Folgore to German Fighter II FW190)
  • 70%: Different model of the same chassis (e.g. Panzer III -> StuG III [German medium tank 1 to German medium tank destroyer 1])
  • 30%: Direct upgrade or direct downgrade of equipment of the same type (e.g. Panzer III -> Panzer IV [German medium tank 1 to German medium tank 2])
  • 20%: Indirect upgrade or indirect downgrade of equipment of the same type (e.g. Panzer III -> Panther [German medium tank 1 to German medium tank 3])
  • 10%: Any other change (e.g. Infantry Equipment 1 to Towed Artillery 1)

Except for changing of variant which is always a loss of 10%, these effects can be reduced by researching

  • Dispersed Industry I to IV
  • Flexible Line (the 1943 technology in the Machine Tools tree)

Each tech provides a production efficiency retention bonus, which serves to limit the production efficiency loss when switching production lines.

Calculating Production Efficiency with Retention bonus[edit]

When a production line is switched while having Dispersed Industry unlocked and/or Flexible Line unlocked, the new Production Efficiency is not the result of a simple addition of the efficiency retention (listed in red in the previous section) and the Production Efficiency Retention bonus obtained from the technologies. As the in-game modifier describes, the retention bonus is applied as a percentage of the loss in production efficiency (e.g. 10% retention incurs a 90% loss, so a 10% bonus would reduce the loss by 10% of 90% or 9%. This would give you a new retention of 19%.)

The new Production Efficiency can be calculated in three steps. First, determine the bonus efficiency by multiplying the retention modifier and the efficiency loss. Second, add that product to the original efficiency retention (listed in red in the previous section). This is you new efficiency retention. Finally, multiply your current production efficiency and your new efficiency retention. This is your new production efficiency.

Note that a base production efficiency (default 10%) superior to this result will supersede it.

It is possible to express these three steps into one formula that will compute the new production efficiency:


  • CPE: Current Production Efficiency;
  • RET: Retention (the values in red above, or 10% for any other production switch);
  • BON: Efficiency retention bonus obtained through Dispersed Industry I to V or Flexible Line.

With this formula we can see that bonus (BON) is more effective with lower retention (RET).

To summarize, the real production efficiency will be given by

Ships, submarines and convoys are produced in dockyards, which do not have production efficiency but are still affected by output tech. Instead, every dockyard produces a flat Production cost (naval).png 2.5 per day, plus any output boost. Although all progress (and so time) on an incomplete ship is lost if the line changes to another ship, the dockyard will function at 100% efficiency as it starts work on a selected alternative ship design.


Each nation can use a percentage of the resources on its territory for military production. This percentage depends on the trade law, with Closed Economy.pngClosed Economy giving 100%.

The total amount of resources can be increased by researching the Excavation technologies (under the tab 'industry'). Each level of Excavation technology gives a resource gain efficiency increase of +10% to the total of all extracted resources (extracted resources are those that come from the ground via drilling or mining or that are produced via a Synthetic Refinery; it does not include resources from trade). There are five (5) levels of Excavation technology; researching all of them will give a +50% bonus to the extracted resources total.

The total amount of resources can also be increased by building infrastructure. Each level of infrastructure gives a resource increase to the total of all extracted resources (except those resources produced by a Synthetic Refinery or resources acquired via trade) in a state. The increase varies with both the starting quantity of resources and starting level of infrastructure. This is shown in the example table below for the resource Steel.

Tag State Infrastructure
GER Moselland 7 100 0
GER Moselland 8 106 +6
GER Moselland 9 112 +12
GER Moselland 10 118 +18
GER Sachsen 7 90 0
GER Sachsen 8 95 +5
GER Sachsen 9 101 +11
GER Sachsen 10 106 +16
USA Tennessee 5 90 0
USA Tennessee 6 96 +6
USA Tennessee 7 102 +12
USA Tennessee 8 108 +18
USA Tennessee 9 114 +24
USA Tennessee 10 120 +30

Resources cannot be stockpiled—they flow directly to production with any excess resources being effectively wasted.

Different kinds of equipment require different resources to produce. Lacking sufficient resources will apply an increasing efficiency penalty up to -100% to the lowest priority production lines. The penalty increases by -5% per missing unit of resource per type and the highest applicable penalty is applied to individual factories. For example, when having 2 units of steel and 0 units of aluminum available and adding a new production line for Support Equipment (needs 2 steel, 1 aluminum) with 11 factories, the first factory receives a penalty of -5% because it misses one unit of aluminum. The second factory receives -10% penalty because it both misses two units of steel and the second unit of aluminum. For each of the remaining factories the penalty increases by -10% because they need two additional steel, the last one getting a -100% penalty. The production line shows the average penalty across all factories, -50%. This penalty stacks multiplicatively with other modifiers.

There are six strategic resources:

Icon Resource Description Equipment
Oil.png Oil Oil is important for making any form of vehicle run.
  • Not used in manufacturing, but instead refined into fuel, which is used by ships, aircraft and ground vehicles to operate.
Aluminum.png Aluminum Aluminum is important for the construction of specialized vehicles and aircraft.
  • Aircraft
  • Support Equipment
Rubber.png Rubber Rubber is important for the construction of most vehicles.
  • Aircraft
  • Motorized/Mechanized
Tungsten.png Tungsten Tungsten is a rare hard metal mainly used for anti-tank munitions, but also machine tools and specialized parts.
  • Artillery and Anti-Tank
  • Medium Tanks
  • Light and Medium SP Artillery and Tank Destroyers
  • Medium SP Anti-Air
  • Jet aircraft
Steel.png Steel Steel is the primary metal for most types of military machinery, whether it be tanks or ships.
  • Infantry Weapons and Support Equipment
  • Artillery, Anti-Air and Anti-Tank
  • Ships
  • Tanks and Motorized/Mechanized
Chromium.png Chromium Chromium is a metal used for the construction of advanced engines.
  • Heavy, Super-Heavy and Modern Tanks and all variants
  • Large ships (Carrier, Battleship, Super-Heavy Battleship, and Battlecruiser)
  • Level IV small ships (Destroyer, Light Cruiser, Heavy Cruiser, Submarine)

Acquiring resources[edit]

There are several ways to acquire more resources:

  • Trade for resources.
  • Take resource prospecting decisions or certain national focuses.
  • Construct Infrastructure in resource-producing states.
  • Construct Synthetic Refineries.
  • Change Trade Law to keep more domestic production.
  • Research Extraction technology.
  • Conquer states containing resources.
  • Gain rights to resources


Land divisions and air wings are not produced as atomic units. Instead, factories produce individual tanks, airplanes, and so forth. This equipment is then sent to fill out the country's land divisions and air wings. Unlike resources, equipment can be stockpiled. The stockpiles can be viewed under the Logistics Tab.

Equipment Supplies
Heavy SP Anti-Air Heavy SP Anti-AirHeavy SP Anti-Air
Heavy SP Artillery Heavy SP ArtilleryHeavy SP Artillery
Heavy Tank Heavy tankHeavy tank
H. Tank Destroyer Heavy Tank DestroyerHeavy Tank Destroyer
Infantry Equipment
Light SP Anti-Air Light SP Anti-AirLight SP Anti-Air
Light SP Artillery Light SP ArtilleryLight SP Artillery
Light Tank Light tankLight tank
L. Tank Destroyer Light Tank DestroyerLight Tank Destroyer
Mechanized MechanizedMechanized
Medium SP Anti-Air Medium SP Anti-AirMedium SP Anti-Air
Medium SP Artillery Medium SP ArtilleryMedium SP Artillery
Medium Tank Medium tankMedium tank
M. Tank Destroyer Medium Tank DestroyerMedium Tank Destroyer
Modern SP Anti-Air Modern SP Anti-AirModern SP Anti-Air
Modern SP Artillery Modern SP ArtilleryModern SP Artillery
Modern Tank Modern tankModern tank
Modern Tank Destroyer Modern Tank DestroyerModern Tank Destroyer
Motorized Rocket Artillery Motorized Rocket ArtilleryMotorized Rocket Artillery
Rocket Artillery
SH SP Anti-Air Super Heavy SP Anti-AirSuper Heavy SP Anti-Air
SH SP Artillery Super Heavy SP ArtillerySuper Heavy SP Artillery
SH. Tank Destroyer Super Heavy Tank DestroyerSuper Heavy Tank Destroyer
Super Heavy Tank Super heavy tankSuper heavy tank
Support Equipment

Production licenses[edit]

Nations may pay for production licenses from nations that already have researched a technology. The cost is generally 1 civilian factory. The factory goes to the nation whose equipment is being licensed.

A nation with good relations with a foreign nation can request a license from them to produce the foreign equipment. The equipment type a nation is willing to license out is dependent on their relations. Germany, for example, may not be willing to license out their latest tank or fighter designs, but would be happy to provide Panzer IIs to friendly or neutral nations. National focuses may also provide a way to gain licenses or provide bonuses to license production. Producing licensed equipment will not be quite as efficient as producing the player's own designs. A cutting edge license production will have a noticeable output penalty, but a design a few years old will be almost as efficient to produce as a self-owned technology. If you aren't in the same faction as the owner of the design, you will also receive a little bit less technical support and manufacturing assistance.

Licensing equipment also gives a research bonus for the related technology if one is interested in unlocking it in the future.

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