Difference between revisions of "Research"

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(added that doctrines have no ahead of time penalties)
(update research speed calculation to 1.8)
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This is then modified by general and specific research time modifiers:
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== Research speed ==
 +
{{SVersion|1.8}}
 +
The base research cost only represents an abstract number of days the research will take. In practice, due to modifiers, research will progress by more or less than exactly one research-cost-day per day.
 +
All modifiers stack additively.
  
=== General modifiers ===
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The research speed is calculated every day for each slot, so changes in research speed (except limited-use bonuses) apply to all ongoing research as well. The research speed can not fall below 10% of the default speed.
{{SVersion|1.5}}
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These apply to all techs.
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=== Research modifiers ===
 +
{{SVersion|1.8}}
  
 
==== Difficulty ====
 
==== Difficulty ====
  
The player can get a research time bonus or penalty depending on the game difficulty setting as follows:   
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The player can get a research speed bonus or penalty depending on the game difficulty setting as follows:   
 
* Civilian {{green|+15%}} bonus
 
* Civilian {{green|+15%}} bonus
 
* Recruit {{green|+7%}} bonus
 
* Recruit {{green|+7%}} bonus
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==== Trade law ====
 
==== Trade law ====
 
{{main|Ideas#Trade_laws}}
 
{{main|Ideas#Trade_laws}}
Trade laws can also reduce research time. The more open the trade the higher the reduction as can be seen below.
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Trade laws can also increase research speed. The more open the trade the higher the reduction as can be seen below.
 
{{#lst:Ideas|trade_law}}
 
{{#lst:Ideas|trade_law}}
  
==== Technologies that reduce research time ====
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==== Technologies that increase research speed ====
 
 
 
{|class = "wikitable" style="text-align:right"
 
{|class = "wikitable" style="text-align:right"
! Technology !! Year !! Base Time <br/> to Research !! Research<br/>Time
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! Technology !! Year !! Research<br/>Speed
 
|-
 
|-
| style="text-align:left" | Electronic Mechanical Engineering || 1936 || 100 || {{green|-2%}}  
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| style="text-align:left" | Electronic Mechanical Engineering || 1936 || {{green|+3%}}  
 
|-
 
|-
| style="text-align:left" | Mechanical Computing || 1936 || 250 || {{green|-3%}}  
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| style="text-align:left" | Mechanical Computing || 1936 || {{green|+4%}}  
 
|-
 
|-
| style="text-align:left" | Computing Machine || 1938 || 250 || {{green|-3%}}
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| style="text-align:left" | Computing Machine || 1938 || {{green|+5%}}
 
|-
 
|-
| style="text-align:left" |Improved Computing Machine || 1940 || 250 || {{green|-5%}}
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| style="text-align:left" |Improved Computing Machine || 1940 || {{green|+8%}}
 
|-
 
|-
| style="text-align:left" |Atomic Research || 1940 || 500 || {{green|-2%}}
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| style="text-align:left" |Atomic Research || 1940 || {{green|+4%}}
 
|-
 
|-
| style="text-align:left" |Advanced Computing Machine || 1942 || 250 || {{green|-5%}}
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| style="text-align:left" |Advanced Computing Machine || 1942 || {{green|+8%}}
 
|}
 
|}
  
Bonuses from these technologies are applied to other research under way at the time the technology is completed, as well as research begun after the bonus technology has completed.
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==== Limited-use bonuses ====
 +
Available limited-use research bonus automatically get activated when an applicable technology gets selected for research. The bonus is then tied to this technology and research slot. A research bonus can alternatively or simultaneously be an ahead-of-time bonus, which reduces the time span until the tech becomes current by the stated amount. This reduces the ahead-of-time penalty (see below).
  
=== Specific modifiers ===
+
==== Unlimited bonuses ====
{{SVersion|1.3}}
+
Various national [[idea]]s, like designers, theorist, and concerns continuously improve the research speed for applicable technologies while they are active. Design companies can additionally improve equipment being unlocked while they are active.
These apply to specific techs. Note that the sum of these stacks multiplicatively with general modifiers. Modifiers are computed when a tech starts researching.
 
  
* Ahead of time penalty: {{red|+200%}} per year.
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=== Equipment licensing ===
* Research bonuses: These are generally gained via national focus. Usually a {{green|-50%}} modifier to a tech or a {{green|-100%}} ahead of time penalty, applied when next eligible research project starts or restarts.
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When licensing equipment from another country, researching that equipment gets a speed bonus of {{green|{{hover|NTechnology.LICENSE_PRODUCTION_TECH_BONUS|+20%}}}}.
* Research and Production: Under [[Political]], various designers, concerns and theorists can provide {{green|-10%}} or {{green|-15%}} bonus to research.Note at what point in the research project these modifiers are applied.
 
  
Note that ahead of time research length does not scale linearly with ahead of time itself because the penalty is reduced over time. The number of days required for ahead of time research (assuming the research is completed before the penalty is removed) is as follows.
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=== Technology sharing ===
 +
{{expansion|tfv}}
 +
When a country is part of a research group, it gets a research speed bonus for each other country in the group that has already unlocked that technology, up to {{green|{{hover|NTechnology.MAX_TECH_SHARING_BONUS|+50%}}}}. [[Subject]]s benefit less from technology sharing, depending on their [[autonomy]] level.
  
<math>t=365\times(\text{number of years ahead at start}+\frac{1}{2})\times\left(1-e^{-\frac{2}{365}\times\text{research cost in days}\times(1+\text{research bonus})}\right)</math>
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=== Ahead-of-time penalty ===
 +
Most technologies (except doctrines) have a date attached to them when they become current. Researching them earlier comes at the cost of reduced research speed. Each year ahead adds {{red|+200%}} to the ahead-of-time (AOT) penalty, which divides the research speed. For example 365 days before a technology becomes current, research speed gets divided by 3; 730 days ahead, it is divided by 5 etc. As the research speed is re-calculated every day, the speed penalty slowly goes down even while a technology is being researched.
  
The research bonuses through National Focus and other smaller research modifiers both apply '''subtractively''' to research cost. For example, a minor nation with {{green|-5%}} research bonus from Export Focus and {{green|-50%}} from National Focus on a 200-day armor model has an effective research cost of <math>200\times(1-5%-50%)=90</math> days.
+
Ignoring other speed modifiers a technology starting to research X years before the date it becomes current, with a base research cost of N days will take <math>\frac{1}{2}(-e^{-2*\frac{N}{365}}(2x+1)+2x+1) \text{ years}</math>. This assumes the research starts with a speed higher than the minimum and finishes before the technology becomes current. Other speed modifiers change this duration linearly.
  
 
== Technologies ==
 
== Technologies ==
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It's possible to change doctrine throughout the game, but all bonuses from the old doctrine are lost, as if completely abandoned, when starting research of a different doctrine tree.
 
It's possible to change doctrine throughout the game, but all bonuses from the old doctrine are lost, as if completely abandoned, when starting research of a different doctrine tree.
There are no ahead of time penalties of doctrines.  Some national spirits may provide penalties, while others may increase research time.
+
There are no ahead of time penalties of doctrines.
 
 
== Technology sharing ==
 
{{SVersion|1.3}}
 
{{expansion|tfv}}
 
Some countries may share their technological progress with other members of the sharing group they are part of. This means that they will receive a reduced research cost for technologies already researched by other members and vice versa. Sharing groups are not necessarily limited to faction. If more members have researched a technology, the the discount will be greater.
 
 
 
Certain sharing groups may be restricted to specific technological areas, such as electronics or radar, where others, for instance the British commonwealth, are universal in this respect. Commonwealth technology sharing is automatic from the start of the game. Others can access specific sharing arrangements by national focus, or by turning on and maintaining a continuous focus if that is available. Cooperation and coordination in research can be very effective in multiplayer games.
 
 
 
The sharing bonus may be reduced for [[puppet|puppets]] depending on their autonomy level.
 
  
 
[[Category:Technology]]
 
[[Category:Technology]]

Revision as of 04:21, 7 December 2019

Research is used to unlock technologies.

Research slots

Technology is unlocked by assigning a research slot to it for the required number of days.

The base number of research slots depends on the country:

  • USA, democratic Germany: 4 slots, plus 2 additional possible via national focus. (Democratic Germany requires Waking the TigerWaking the Tiger).
  • Non-democratic Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom: 4 slots, plus 1 additional possible via national focus.
  • France, Soviet Union, most other countries in Europe, plus Canada: 3 slots, plus 2 additional possible via national focus (in Canada's case, the last 1 requires independence).
  • Other countries outside of Europe as well as Luxembourg, Bulgaria and Albania: 2 slots, plus 3 additional possible via national focus (for British subjects, the final 2 also require independence).
  • New Zealand: 2 slots, plus 4 additional possible via national focus. (Requires Together for VictoryTogether for Victory).

For most countries, unlocking the final research slot requires having a substantial number of factories (usually 50+). The Commonwealth countries must (with Together for Victory) additionally become fully independent to maximize their available research slots.

Each research slot can store 30 days of research while unused.

Research time

Each technology has a base time cost:

Cost (days) Techs
50 Armor Submodels
100 Artillery (II) & Upgrades (II,III,IV); Anti-Air Artillery (II,III) & Upgrades; Rocket Artillery (II) & Upgrades; Anti-Tank Artillery (II,III) & Upgrades
Support Equipment; Carrier Airplanes; Electronic Mechanical Engineering; Encryption
150 Infantry Weapons (I) & Upgrades (I,III); Support & Anti-Tank Weapons; Motorized Rocket Artillery;
Marines (II), Mountain Infantry (II), Paratroopers (II)
Support Companies (II,III,IV); Artillery (I) & Upgrades (I); Anti-Air Artillery (I); Anti-Tank Artillery (I)
Ships (I); Transports (I); 1st Land Doctrine; 1st Air Doctrine
Radio; Radio Detection; Decimetric Radar (I); Decryption; Experimental Rockets; Rocket Engines (II,III)
Machine Tools (I,II); Equipment Conversion; Oil Processing; Rubber Processing
200 Infantry Weapons (II,III) & Upgrade (II); Night Vision (II); Motorized & Mechanized (I,II);
Marines (I,III), Mountain Infantry (I,III), Paratroopers (I,III); Special Forces Programs
Support Companies (I); Artillery (III); Rocket Artillery (I); Great War Tank, Light, Medium & Heavy (I) Armor
Ships (II,III,IV); Transports (II,III); Naval Doctrines
Airplanes; Air Doctrines (not 1st)
Decimetric Radar(II); Rocket Engines(I); Jet Engines
Machine Tools(III); Production Line (I); Industry; Construction; Excavation
250 Night Vision (I); Modern, Super Heavy & Heavy (II,III) Armor; Centimetric Radar; Computing; Production Line (II)
300 Mechanized (III); Land doctrines (not 1st); Synthetic Oil Experiments
500 Nuclear technology

Research speed

The base research cost only represents an abstract number of days the research will take. In practice, due to modifiers, research will progress by more or less than exactly one research-cost-day per day. All modifiers stack additively.

The research speed is calculated every day for each slot, so changes in research speed (except limited-use bonuses) apply to all ongoing research as well. The research speed can not fall below 10% of the default speed.

Research modifiers

Difficulty

The player can get a research speed bonus or penalty depending on the game difficulty setting as follows:

  • Civilian +15% bonus
  • Recruit +7% bonus
  • Regular no bonus or penalty
  • Veteran -15% penalty
  • Elite -30% penalty

Trade law

Main article: Ideas#Trade_laws

Trade laws can also increase research speed. The more open the trade the higher the reduction as can be seen below.

Law Resources
to Market
Dockyard/
Factory
Output
Construction
Speed
Research
Speed
Prerequisites
Free Trade.pngFree Trade 80% +15% +15% +10%
Export Focus.pngExport Focus 50% +10% +10% +5%
Limited Exports.pngLimited Exports 25% +5% +5% +1% One of the following must be true:
  • All of the following must be true:
    • At war.
    • Current ruling party is Democratic.
    • Any enemy country has more than 20% of this country's total number of factories.
  • All of the following must be true:
Closed Economy.pngClosed Economy 0%

Technologies that increase research speed

Technology Year Research
Speed
Electronic Mechanical Engineering 1936 +3%
Mechanical Computing 1936 +4%
Computing Machine 1938 +5%
Improved Computing Machine 1940 +8%
Atomic Research 1940 +4%
Advanced Computing Machine 1942 +8%

Limited-use bonuses

Available limited-use research bonus automatically get activated when an applicable technology gets selected for research. The bonus is then tied to this technology and research slot. A research bonus can alternatively or simultaneously be an ahead-of-time bonus, which reduces the time span until the tech becomes current by the stated amount. This reduces the ahead-of-time penalty (see below).

Unlimited bonuses

Various national ideas, like designers, theorist, and concerns continuously improve the research speed for applicable technologies while they are active. Design companies can additionally improve equipment being unlocked while they are active.

Equipment licensing

When licensing equipment from another country, researching that equipment gets a speed bonus of +20%.

Technology sharing

When a country is part of a research group, it gets a research speed bonus for each other country in the group that has already unlocked that technology, up to +50%. Subjects benefit less from technology sharing, depending on their autonomy level.

Ahead-of-time penalty

Most technologies (except doctrines) have a date attached to them when they become current. Researching them earlier comes at the cost of reduced research speed. Each year ahead adds +200% to the ahead-of-time (AOT) penalty, which divides the research speed. For example 365 days before a technology becomes current, research speed gets divided by 3; 730 days ahead, it is divided by 5 etc. As the research speed is re-calculated every day, the speed penalty slowly goes down even while a technology is being researched.

Ignoring other speed modifiers a technology starting to research X years before the date it becomes current, with a base research cost of N days will take . This assumes the research starts with a speed higher than the minimum and finishes before the technology becomes current. Other speed modifiers change this duration linearly.

Technologies

Technologies allow countries to unlock production of new units such as mechanized infantry, paratroopers, tanks and all kinds of airplanes; new equipment, from infantry weapons to carrier air groups and specialized armored units; as well as defensive and productive structures.

On the other hand, most technologies serve to improve the efficiency of current units. This can be achieved through a number of ways, such as improving the damage inflicted by the unit, its ability to penetrate the armor of armored units, its defensiveness and organization or simply its ability to detect enemy units.

It is possible to research improvements of already researched technologies. There could be small buttons on technology (e.g. possibility to operate from carriers for airframe). These improvements have to be researched separately.

Land

  • Infantry technology: Technologies that improve infantry weapons and equipment, unlock or improve motorized and mechanized units as well as special forces (marines, mountaineers and paratroopers).
  • Artillery technology: Technologies that unlock and improve all types of artillery, including anti-tank, anti-air and rocket artillery.
  • Support Companies technology: Technologies that unlock and improve all types of support battalions: Engineers, Reconnaissance, Military Police, Maintenance, Field Hospital, Logistics and Signal companies.
  • Armor technology: Technologies that unlock all types and models of tanks, from light to super heavy chassis, as well as their variants: tank destroyer, self-propelled artillery and self-propelled anti-air.
  • Land doctrine: Unlocks one of the four land doctrine trees: mobile warfare, superior firepower, grand battleplan and mass assault.

Naval

  • Naval technology: Technologies that unlocks or improve all kinds of ship units: destroyer, cruisers, battleship, carrier, submarine or improve transports for naval invasions.
  • Naval doctrine: Unlocks one of the three naval doctrine trees: fleet in being, trade interdiction and base strike.

Air

  • Air technology: Technologies that unlock or improve all types of airframes: light, medium or heavy, as well as their jet propulsion versions.
  • Air doctrine: Unlocks one of the three air doctrine trees: strategic destruction, battlefield support and operational integrity.

Industry

Doctrines

All doctrines listed above serve to improve units in a specific role by providing them one or multiple bonuses once the doctrine has been researched. Some of these bonuses can be obtained through more than one doctrine, but at different depth of the doctrine tree and most bonuses are unique to a specific doctrine.

It's also necessary for all players to make a choice when researching doctrines, as opposed to all other technologies (with the exception of Industry) that can be entirely researched. Only one doctrine can be researched out of three or four options, depending on the doctrine type (land, naval or air).

It's possible to change doctrine throughout the game, but all bonuses from the old doctrine are lost, as if completely abandoned, when starting research of a different doctrine tree. There are no ahead of time penalties of doctrines.